ENR 1.2  Visual flight rules

1   SERA.5005 (a)

Except when operating as a special VFR flight, VFR flights shall be conducted so that the aircraft is flown in conditions of visibility and distance from clouds equal to or greater than those specified in table below.
VMC visibility and distance from cloud minima (*)
Altitude bandAirspace classFlight visibilityDistance from cloud
At and above 3050 m (10000 ft) AMSLA (**) B C D E F G8 km1500 m horizontally 300 m (1000 ft) vertically
Below 3050 m (10000 ft) AMSL and above 900 m (3000 ft) AMSL, or above 300 m (1000 ft) above terrain, whichever is the higherA (**) B C D E F G5 km1500 m horizontally 300 m (1000 ft) vertically
At and below 900 m (3000 ft) AMSL, or 300 m (1000 ft) above terrain, whichever is the higherA (**) B C D E5 km1500 m horizontally 300 m (1000 ft) vertically
F G5 km (***)Clear of cloud and with the surface in sight
(*) When the height of the transition altitude is lower than 3050 m (10000 ft) AMSL, FL 100 shall be used in lieu of 10000 ft. (**) The VMC minima in Class A airspace are included for guidance to pilots and do not imply acceptance of VFR flights in Class A airspace. (***)
  1. flight visibilities reduced to not less than 1500 m may be permitted for flights operating:
    1. at speeds of 140 kt IAS or less to give adequate opportunity to observe other traffic or any obstacles in time to avoid collision; or
    2. in circumstances in which the probability of encounters with other traffic would normally be low, e.g. in areas of low volume traffic and for aerial work at low levels;
  2. Helicopters may be permitted to operate in less than 1500 m but not less than 800 m flight visibility, if manoeuvred at a speed that will give adequate opportunity to observe other traffic or any obstacles in time to avoid collision.
From requirement SERA.5001(***)(b) exemption for special operations in accordance with Commission Implementing Regulation (EU) No 923/2012 was granted as follows:
Helicopters may be permitted to operate in less than 1 500 m but not less than 500 m flight visibility, if manoeuvred at a speed that will give adequate opportunity to observe other traffic or any obstacles in time to avoid collision.This exemption is used for the following activities of public interest and for the training necessary to carry out those activities safely:

a. police and customs missions,
c. environmental control missions conducted by, or on behalf of public authorities,
d. search and rescue,
e. medical flights and
g. fire fighting.

2   SERA.5005 (b)

Except when a special VFR clearance is obtained from an air traffic control unit, VFR flights shall not take off or land at an aerodrome within a control zone, or enter the aerodrome traffic zone or aerodrome traffic circuit when the reported meteorological conditions at that aerodrome are below the following minima:
  1. the ceiling is less than 450 m (1500 ft); or
  2. the ground visibility is less than 5 km.

3   SERA.5005 (c)

VFR flights at night may be permitted under the following conditions:
  1. if leaving the vicinity of an aerodrome, a flight plan shall be submitted in accordance with SERA.4001(b)(6);
  2. flights shall establish and maintain two-way radio communication on the appropriate ATS communication channel, when available;
  3. the VMC visibility and distance from cloud minima as specified in in the table above in point ENR 1.2.1 shall apply except that:
    1. the ceiling shall not be less than 450 m (1500 ft);
    2. the reduced flight visibility provisions specified in ENR 1.2.1.(a) and (b) shall not apply;
    3. in airspace classes B, C, D, E, F and G, at and below 900 m (3000 ft) above AMSL or 300 m (1000 ft) above terrain, whichever is the higher, the pilot shall maintain continuous sight of the surface; and
    4. for mountainous terrain, minimum visibility for VFR flights (except for helicopters) at night shall not be less than 8 km
  4. except when necessary for take-off or landing, or except when specifically authorised by the competent authority (CAA), a VFR flight at night shall be flown at a level which is not below the minimum flight altitude established by the State whose territory is overflown, or, where no such minimum flight altitude has been established:
    1. over high terrain or in mountainous areas, at a level which is at least 600 m (2000 ft) above the highest obstacle located within 8 km of the estimated position of the aircraft;
    2. elsewhere than as specified in i), at a level which is at least 300 m (1000 ft) above the highest obstacle located within 8 km of the estimated position of the aircraft.
From requirement SERA.5005 (c)(5)(i) exemption for special operations in accordance with Commission Implementing Regulation (EU) No 923/2012 was granted as follows:
VFR flight at night shall be flown at a level which is not below the following minimum flight altitude (i) over high terrain or in mountainous areas, at a level which is at least 500 m (1 600 ft) above the highest obstacle located within 8 km of the estimated position of the aircraft.
This exemption is used for the following activities of public interest and for the training necessary to carry out those activities safely:
a. police missions,
d. search and rescue and
e. medical flights.

4   SERA.5005 (d)

VFR flights shall not be operated:
  1. at transonic and supersonic speeds unless authorised by the competent authority (CAA);
  2. above FL 195. Exceptions to this requirement are the following:
    1. an airspace reservation has been established by the state, where practical and where VFR flights may be allowed; or
    2. airspace up to and including flight level 285, when VFR traffic in that airspace has been authorised by the responsible ATS unit in accordance with the authorisation procedures.

5   SERA.5005 (e)

Authorization for VFR flights to operate above FL 285 shall not be granted where a vertical separation minimum of 300 m (1000 ft) is applied above FL 290.

6   SERA.5005 (f)

Except when necessary for take-off or landing, or except by permission from the competent authority (CAA), a VFR flight shall not be flown:
  1. over the congested areas of cities, towns or settlements or over an open-air assembly of persons at a height less than 300 m (1000 ft)* above the highest obstacle within a radius of 600 m from the aircraft;
  2. elsewhere than as specified in (1), at a height less than 150 m (500 ft) above the ground or water, or 150 m (500 ft) above the highest obstacle within a radius of 150 m (500 ft) from the aircraft.
*From requirement SERA.5005 (f)(1) exemption for special operations in accordance with Commission Implementing Regulation (EU) No 923/2012 was granted as follows:
Except when necessary for take-off or landing a VFR flight shall not be flown over the congested areas of cities, towns or settlements or over an open-air assembly of persons at a height less than 200 m (700 ft) above the highest obstacle within a radius of 600 m from the aircraft.
This exemption is used for the following activities of public interest and for the training necessary to carry out those activities safely:
a. police and customs missions,
d. search and rescue,
e. medical flights,
f. evacuations and
g. fire fighting.

7   SERA.5005 (g)

Except where otherwise indicated in air traffic control clearances or specified by the competent authority (CAA), VFR flights in level cruising flight when operated above 900 m (3000 ft) from the ground or water, or a higher datum if specified by the competent authority (CAA), shall be conducted at a cruising level appropriate to the track as specified in the table of cruising levels.

8   SERA.5005 (h)

VFR flights shall comply with the provisions of SERA Section 8:
  1. when operated within Classes B, C and D airspace;
  2. when forming part of aerodrome traffic at controlled aerodromes; or
  3. when operated as special VFR flights.

9   SERA.5005 (i)

A VFR flight operating within or into areas or along routes designated by the competent authority (CAA), in accordance with SERA.4001(b)(3) or (4), shall maintain continuous air-ground voice communication watch on the appropriate communication channel of, and report its position as necessary to, the air traffic services unit providing flight information service.

10   SERA.5005 (j)

An aircraft operated in accordance with the visual flight rules which wishes to change to compliance with the instrument flight rules shall:
  1. if a flight plan was submitted, communicate the necessary changes to be effected to its current flight plan; or
  2. as required by SERA.4001(b), submit a flight plan to the appropriate air traffic services unit as soon as practicable and obtain a clearance prior to proceeding IFR when in controlled airspace.

11   SERA.5010 Special VFR in control zones

Special VFR flights may be authorised to operate within a control zone, subject to an ATC clearance. Except when permitted by the competent authority (CAA) for helicopters in special cases such as, but not limited to, police, medical, search and rescue operations and fire-fighting flights, the following additional conditions shall be applied:
  1. such special VFR flights may be conducted during day only, unless otherwise permitted by the competent authority (CAA);
  2. by the pilot:
    1. clear of cloud and with the surface in sight;
    2. the flight visibility is not less than 1500 m or, for helicopters, not less than 800 m;
    3. fly at speed of 140 kt IAS or less to give adequate opportunity to observe other traffic and any obstacles in time to avoid a collision; and
  3. an air traffic control unit shall not issue a special VFR clearance to aircraft to take off or land at an aerodrome within a control zone, or enter the aerodrome traffic zone or aerodrome traffic circuit when the reported meteorological conditions at that aerodrome are below the following minima:
    1. the ground visibility is less than 1500 m or, for helicopters, less than 800 m;
    2. the ceiling is less than 180 m (600 ft).

12   Communication requirements

Requirements for VFR flights related to VHF 8.33 kHz channel spacing radio equipage are stated in GEN 1.5