AD 1   Aerodromes/Heliports - Introduction

AD 1.1  Aerodrome/Heliport availability

1   General conditions under which aerodromes/heliports are available

The responsible authority for the approval of aerodromes available for civil use is the Civil Aviation Agency
Aerodromes are operated by the municipal authorities under licence from the Civil Aviation Agency to ensure compliance with minimum standards established. These standards correspond with the Standards and Recommended Practices of ICAO Annex 14.

2   Applicable ICAO documents

The Standards and Recommended Practices of ICAO Annex 14, Volumes I and II, are applied.

3   Civil use of military air bases

No information available.

4   CAT II/III operations at aerodromes

4.1   Introduction
The procedures and items listed below are basic information to operators and pilots concerning specific rules and regulations for low visibility operations in Slovenia including CATII/III approach, landing and low visibility take-off.
ATC applies special safeguards and procedures for Low Visibility Operations that will become effective in relation to specified weather conditions. These procedures are intended to provide protection for aircraft operating in low visibility and to avoid disturbances to the ILS signals.
4.2   Categories of Precision Approach and Landing Operations
4.2.1   Category I (CAT I) operation
A precision instrument approach and landing with a decision height not lower than 60 m (200 ft) and with either a visibility not less than 800 m or a runway visual range not less than 550 m.
4.2.2   Category II (CAT II) operation
A precision instrument approach and landing with a decision height lower than 60 m (200 ft), but not lower than 30 m (100 ft) and RVR not less than 350 m or 300 m (for aircraft conducting an autoland).
4.2.3   Category IIIA (CAT IIIA) operation
A precision instrument approach and landing with:
  1. a decision height lower than 30 m (100 ft) or no decision height; and
  2. RVR not less than 200 m.
4.2.4   Category IIIB (CAT IIIB) operation
A precision instrument approach and landing with:
  1. a decision height lower than 15 m (50 ft) or no decision height; and
  2. RVR less than 200 m but not less than 50 m.
Note: Where decision height (DH) and runway visual range (RVR) fall into different categories of operation, the instrument approach and landing operation would be conducted in accordance with the requirements of the most demanding category (e.g. an operation with DH in the range of CAT IIIA but with an RVR in the range of CAT IIIB would be considered a CAT IIIB operation or an operation with a DH in the range of CAT II but with an RVR in the range of CAT I would be considered a CAT II operation).
4.2.5   Low visibility take-off (LVTO)
A term used by the Joint Aviation Authorities in relation to flight operations referring to a take-off on runway where the RVR is less than 400 m.
4.3   Applicable ICAO Documents
  • ICAO Annex 6 - Operation of Aircraft
  • ICAO Annex 10, Volume I - Aeronautical Telecommunications
  • ICAO Annex 14 - Aerodromes
  • ICAO Document 4444 - Rules of the Air and Air Traffic Services
  • ICAO Document 8168 PANS-OPS - Aircraft Operations
  • ICAO Document 8071 - Manual on Testing of Radio-Navigation Aids
  • ICAO Document 9365-AN/910 - Manual of All Weather Operations (except ch.4, para 2 and ch.6, para 1)
  • ICAO Document 9476-AN/927 - Manual of Surface Movement Guidance and Control System
  • ECAC Document 17 - Common European Procedures for CAT II and CAT III ILS Operations
The most significant provisions, procedures and deviations therefrom or additional regulations are summarised in the following.
4.4   Aerodrome facilities
4.4.1   Physical Characteristics
Runways and taxiways of aerodromes are designed and operated according to the Standards and Recommended Practices laid down in ICAO Annex 14 appropriate to the category of their certified operation.
At present Low Visibility Operations are available only at Aerodrome LJUBLJANA/BRNIK (LJLJ)
  • CAT II/III approach and landing RWY 30
  • Low visibility take-off RWY 12 and RWY 30
4.4.2   Obstacle Clearance Criteria and Obstacle Free Zone (OFZ)
The aerodromes and the airspace around the aerodromes are kept free of obstacles rising above the precision approach obstacle limitation surfaces as defined in ICAO Annex 14, chapter 4 and Document 8168 PANS-OPS, Volume II. An object which penetrates one of the obstacle limitation surfaces becomes the controlling obstacle for calculating the OCA/OCH.
During CAT II or CAT III Operations the Obstacle Free Zone (OFZ) is kept clear of all obstacles, such as vehicles, persons and aircraft at all times when an aircraft making an approach is below 200 ft GND.
Essential equipment and installations in the vicinity of the runway which are necessary because of their function for air navigation purposes (e.g. GP antenna, RVR assessment units, etc.,) are situated clear of the OFZ and of minimum mass and frangibly mounted.
4.4.3   Pre-Threshold Terrain
A Precision Approach Terrain Chart according to the Standards and Recommended Practices of Annex 4 and 14 is provided for each runway certified for CAT II and CAT III ILS Operations; the charts are included in section AD 2.24 of the aerodrome concerned.
4.5   Visual Aids
4.5.1   Approach lighting
Approach lighting for precision approach runways is in compliance with Standards and Recommended Practices laid down in ICAO Annex 14.
For detailed description of the approach lighting system see section AD 2.14 of the aerodrome concerned.
4.5.2   Runway Lighting and Marking
Runway lighting and marking is in compliance with the Standards and Recommended Practices laid down in ICAO Annex 14.
Runways certified for CAT II and CAT III ILS Operations are equipped accordingly including runway threshold lighting, runway edge lighting, runway end lighting and marking, runway centre line lighting and marking and touch down zone lighting and marking. For detailed description of the Runway Lighting and Marking see section AD 2.14 of the aerodrome concerned.
4.5.3   Taxiway Lighting and Markings, Stopbars
Taxiway lighting and marking is in compliance with the Standards and Recommended Practices laid down in ICAO Annex 14.
Stop bars, taxi-holding positions and illuminated notice boards are installed to provide adequate clearance for taxiing aircraft from the runway.
Taxiways leading to or from runways intended to be used during CAT II and CAT III weather conditions are equipped with TWY centre line lights. TWY centre line lights within the LOC sensitive area are colour coded (yellow/green) in order to advise the pilot exiting the runway when the aircraft is clear of LOC sensitive area.
4.5.4   Secondary Power Supply
Secondary power supply (switch over time is 1 second) for the Visual Aids is provided in accordance with the requirements of ICAO Annex 14.
Remark: Any failure of the secondary power supply equipment is effecting a down-grading of ILS Operations.
4.6   Non-Visual aids
4.6.1   Equipment
ILS ground equipment serving instrument runways are no-break power supplied dual systems and located and operated according to the Standards and Recommended Practices laid down in ICAO Annex 10, Volume I, part I, chapter 3, item 3.1.
Automatic monitor systems according to the requirements of Annex 10, Volume I, part I are provided for all ILS ground systems components. LOC certified for CAT II and/or CAT III operations are additionally monitored by a far-field monitor. Pilots will be informed without delay about any deficiency.
Flight inspections are conducted in regular intervals and in accordance with the guidelines of ICAO Document 8071.
4.6.2   ILS Sensitive Areas
A sensitive area for localizer protection is established.
For ATC purposes the LOC sensitive area is defined as a rectangular area which is located within parallel lines 150 metres on both sides of the runway centre line and between the localizer aerial and the beginning of the runway.
During CAT II or CAT III operations the ILS sensitive area is kept clear of all vehicles and aircraft at all times when an approaching aircraft is within 2 NM from threshold until it has completed its landing run and at all times that an aircraft taking off is using the ILS localizer for guidance during take-off run.
4.6.3   Secondary Power Supply
All radio navigation aids, essential communication equipment and the RVR assessment system are no-break power supplied.
4.7   Services at aerodromes
4.7.1   Aerodrome services
Maintenance and inspection of the visual aids, runways and taxiways is done in regular intervals by aerodrome operator.
Maintenance an inspection of the non-visual aids is executed by Technical department of Slovenia Control, Ltd.
4.7.2   Aeronautical Information Services
Under normal circumstances pilot may expect that facilities provided for all-weather operations to the particular runway are operative.
Any change in operational status or any other deficiency, if caused by a failure expected to last more than one hour, will be promulgated by NOTAM; pilots will be informed accordingly by ATC and/or ATIS.
4.7.3   Meteorological Service
Accurate and timely reporting of meteorological conditions at the aerodrome concerned according to ICAO Annex 3 is provided.
Runway Visual Range (RVR) is normally assessed by electronic transmissiometers; position of transmissiometers at touch-down zone, mid-point and stop-end of the runways are on the aerodrome chart designated as position A (touch down), B (mid point) and C (runway end) respectively and indicated on the aerodrome chart (AD 2.24) accordingly.
If the TDZ RVR assessment unit fails, the RVR value from the mid-point will be transmitted.
4.8   Requirements for aircraft and flight crew
4.8.1   Aircraft and Equipment
Basic requirements for an aircraft and its equipment for CAT II and CAT III operations are described in chapter 4.2 of the ICAO Doc. 9365-AN/10 — Manual of All Weather Operations.
Competent Authority for aircraft registered in the Republic of Slovenia is the Civil Aviation Agency.
4.8.2   Flight Crews
Training and experience requirements for flight crews to operate at low minima are described in chapter 4.3 of the ICAO Doc. 9365-AN/10 — Manual of All Weather Operations.
Competent Authority for aircraft operators registered in the Republic of Slovenia is the Civil Aviation Agency.
4.9   Flight Training and practice approach
4.9.1   General
Training flights simulating low minima approaches have to be announced on initial call with approach control using the phrase "REQUEST PRACTICE CAT II/III APPROACH". Depending on traffic situation permission will be granted whenever possible.
Procedures will be applied only if traffic permits. Departing or preceding landing traffic may disturb ILS signals. Under weather conditions better than CAT II/III, the secondary power supply for the visual approach aids prescribed for CAT II/III operations will not be operated.
4.10   Authorisation of CAT II and CAT III operations
4.10.1   Domestic Operators
Domestic operators wishing to carry out CAT II/III operations shall apply by writing for the approval of CAT II/III operations.
4.10.2   Foreign Operators
Foreign operators will obtain the authorization after submission of the copy of approval delivered by the authority of the state of registry.
4.10.3   Applications shall be addressed to:
Post:Civil Aviation Agency
Kotnikova 19a
SI-1000 Ljubljana
SLOVENIA

5   Friction measuring device used and friction level

For the friction measuring devices used, see AD 1.2.

6   Other information

6.1   Automatic terminal information service (ATIS)
  1. Contents of broadcast (if applicable):
    • name of aerodrome
    • the word ''information’ and the identification letter (i.e. Alpha, Bravo, Charlie etc.)
    • runway in use, indication of ''low visibility procedures in operation expect further RVR by ATC’’
    • transition level
    • MET report, including
      • observation time
      • RWY 30 TDZ surface and wind direction and speed including significant variations
      • RWY 30 TDZ visibility and runway visual range (RVR)
      • present weather
      • clouds if the sky is obscured, vertical visibility
      • if the sky is obscured, vertical visibility
      • temperature and dew point
      • altimeter setting(s)
      • trend
      • aerodrome weather warning(s)
    • specific information (i.e. runway condition of runway in use, braking action, restrictions in the usability of approach aids, downgrading of ILS approach procedure, construction work on or in the vicinity of the runway(s) in use).
  2. Each transmission begins with a code letter using the ICAO spelling alphabet. The code letter should be repeated by the pilot when establishing radio communication with approach control or aerodrome control tower in order to make sure that the last valid transmission has been received.
  3. The broadcast information will be updated immediately if significant change occurs. Current changes of RVR values will be available on control frequency.
  4. Information additional to the specific in item 1. f) – (e.g. information about longer lasting restrictions in the usability of RWY or APP aids, construction work on or in the vicinity or RWY, which is already available in AIP or published by NOTAM, will only be included when considered necessary in exceptional circumstances.
6.2   Application of reduced runway separation
6.2.1  Reduced runway separation between two aircraft using the same runway may be applied subject to the following conditions:
  • Reduced runway separation minima shall only be applied during the hours of daylight from 30 minutes after local sunrise to 30 minutes before local sunset;
  • wake turbulence separation minima shall be applied;
  • visibility shall be at least 5 km and ceiling shall not be lower than 300 m (1000 ft);
  • tailwind component shall not exceed 5 kts;
  • there shall be available means, such as suitable landmarks, to assist the controller in assessing the distances between aircraft;
  • minimum separation continues to exist between two departing aircraft immediately after take-off of the second aircraft;
  • traffic information shall be provided to the flight crew of the succeeding aircraft concerned; and
  • the braking action shall not be adversely affected by runway contaminants such as ice, slush, snow and water.
Reduced runway separation minima shall not apply between a departing aircraft and a preceding landing aircraft.
6.2.2  For the purpose of reduced runway separation, aircraft shall be classified as follows:
  1. Category 1 aircraft:
    single-engine propeller aircraft with a maximum certificated take-off mass of 2000 kg or less;
  2. Category 2 aircraft:
    single-engine propeller aircraft with a maximum certificated take-off mass of more than 2000 kg but less than 7000 kg; and twin-engine propeller aircraft with a maximum certificated take-off mass of less than 7000 kg;
  3. Category 3 aircraft:
    all other aircraft.
6.2.3  Reduced runway separation minima which may be applied at an aerodrome shall be determined for each separate runway.
The separation to be applied shall in no case be less than the following minima:
  1. Landing aircraft:
    a succeeding landing Category 1 aircraft may cross the runway threshold when the preceding aircraft is a Category 1 or 2 aircraft which either:
    • has landed and has passed a point at least 600 m from the threshold of the runway, is in motion and will vacate the runway without backtracking; or
    • is airborne and has passed a point at least 600 m from the threshold of the runway;

    a succeeding landing Category 2 aircraft may cross the runway threshold when the preceding aircraft is a Category 1 or 2 aircraft which either:
    • has landed and has passed a point at least 1500 m from the threshold of the runway, is in motion and will vacate the runway without backtracking; or
    • is airborne and has passed a point at least 1500 m from the threshold of the runway;

    a succeeding landing aircraft may cross the runway threshold when a preceding Category 3 aircraft:
    • has landed and has passed a point at least 2400 m from the threshold of the runway, is in motion and will vacate the runway without backtracking; or
    • is airborne and has passed a point at least 2400 m from the threshold of the runway

  2. Departing aircraft:
    a Category 1 aircraft may be cleared for take-off when the preceding departing aircraft is a Category 1 or 2 aircraft which is airborne and has passed a point at least 600 m from the position of the succeeding aircraft;

    a Category 2 aircraft may be cleared for take-off when the preceding departing aircraft is a Category 1 or 2 aircraft which is airborne and has passed a point at least 1500 m from the position of the succeeding aircraft; and

    an aircraft may be cleared for take-off when a preceding departing Category 3 aircraft is airborne and has passed a point at least 2400 m from the position of the succeeding aircraft.

    Consideration should be given to increased separation between high performance single-engine aircraft and preceding Category 1 or 2 aircraft.